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In the C.D. Howe Institute's 2021 annual report card we grade the clarity, comprehensiveness, and timeliness of the financial presentations of 31 major Canadian municipalities, based on their most recent budgets and financial statements.

Of those 31, Regina and Saskatoon earn Fs, failing to meet a minimal standard of transparency, usefulness and timeliness. Vancouver stood alone at the top, garnering an A+ for its clarity and completeness. Quebec City, Surrey, Markham, Richmond, and Vaughan also stand out favourably. Elsewhere, Montreal and Winnipeg each garnered a B, Toronto a B-, while Calgary and Ottawa each earned a C grade.

To learn more about the fiscal accountability of Canada’s major municipalities, how we grade their performance, and the simple fixes that could put them at the top of the class for next year, read “Solving the Municipal Budget Mystery: Fiscal Accountability in Canada’s Cities, 2021.